Which Tory MPs have resigned and who are they?
The loss of Education Secretary Sajid Javid would have been a headache for Boris Johnson. The loss of the Chancellor Rishi Sunak made the picture far worse.
But the resignations continued last night and more have come this morning.
So who are the Conservative MPs who have stood down from government roles?
A former high-flier at Deutsche Bank, Javid was elected under David Cameron and lasted just over a year as Health and Social Care Secretary before handing in his resignation on Tuesday night. The Bromsgrove MP told Johnson: "I can no longer, in good conscience, continue serving in this government. I am instinctively a team player but the British people also rightly expected integrity from their government. The tone you set as a leader, and the values you represent, reflect on your colleagues, your party and ultimately the country."
The Chancellor's letter came shortly after Javid's but teams for both men claim these are unconnected moves. A former hedge fund partner, Sunak became the first serving Chancellor to be fined for breaking the law while in office, when he was issued a fixed penalty notice for breaking lockdown rules by the Metropolitan Police, along with Johnson and others. Sunak has represented Richmond since 2015 and told Johnson: "The public rightly expect government to be conducted properly, competently and seriously. I recognise this may be my last ministerial job, but I believe these standards are worth fighting for and that is why I am resigning."
Murrison's resignation was also his introduction to many members of the public. The MP for South West Wiltshire – a former doctor and naval officer – had been trade envoy to Morocco but wrote: "The last straw in the rolling chaos of the past six months has been the unavoidable implication of Lord McDonald's letter to the Parliamentary Commissioner for Standards this morning. Others must square, as best they can, their continuing enjoyment of your patronage with their personal sense of decency, honour and integrity, but I no longer can."
Unlike his colleagues, Hitchen and Harpenden MP Afolami took the unusual step of announcing his resignation during a live broadcast on TalkTV. A former corporate lawyer, Afolami had been vice-chair of the Conservative party but said: "I just don't think the Prime Minister any longer has, not just my support but he doesn't have, I don't think, the support of the party or indeed the country any more."
One of the 2019 parliamentary intake, Gullis worked as a school teacher before becoming an MP and became parliamentary private secretary (PPS) to the Northern Ireland Secretary. The Stoke-on-Trent North MP's letter read: "I feel for too long we have been more focused on dealing with our reputational damage rather than delivering for the people of this country and spreading opportunity for all, which is why I came into politics. It is for this reason I can no longer serve as part of your government."
Another 2019 entrant to parliament, Bhatti went from chartered accountant and president of the Greater Birmingham Chambers of Commerce to PPS for Javid. In his resignation letter, the Meriden MP wrote: "The Conservative and Unionist Party has always been the party of integrity and honour. I feel that standards in public life are of the utmost importance and the events of the past few months have undermined public trust in all of us. I have been grappling with these issues for some time and my conscience will not allow me to continue to support this administration."
With a background in public relations, the West Bromwich East MP had served as a PPS in the Department for Transport. The 27-year-old was also first elected in 2019 and told Johnson that the party had become "unrecognisable". She wrote: "AT a time when my constituents are worried about the cost of living and I am doing my best to support them, I cannot bring myself to serve as a PPS under the current circumstances, where the focus is skewed by poor judgement that I don't wish to be associated with."
PPS to the Welsh Office, Crosbie is the MP for Ynys Mon and worked in banking and teaching before her election in 2019. Resigning from the PPS post, she wrote to Johnson that the "inaccurate and contradictory statements" about his knowledge of allegations surrounding ex-deputy chief whip Chris Pincher were "the last straw", saying: "Like others, I have given you the benefit of the doubt on many occasions... it appears you are either badly advised or unable to change or reform the dysfunctional operation at the centre of the government you lead".
Chalk stepped down as Solicitor General, saying he could not "defend the indefensible". He's been the MP for Cheltenham since 2015 and wrote to the PM: "The cumulative effect of the Owen Paterson debacle, partygate and now the handling of the former deputy chief whip's resignation is that public confidence in the ability of Number 10 to uphold the standards of candour expected of a British Government has irretrievably broken down."
Clarke worked in the arts before winning election in Stafford in 2019. She was made trade envoy to Kenya, but now says she has been "shocked to see colleagues defending the government with assurances that turned out to be false" over the Pincher scandal. "This is not the way that any responsible government should act", she wrote in her letter to the Prime Minister.
Trott posted her resignation letter on her Facebook page. An ex-special adviser and the first woman to represent her Sevenoaks and Swanley constituency, to where she was elected in 2019, she was appointed PPS to the Department for Transport but has now quit, saying: "Trust in politics is – and must always be – of the upmost importance, but sadly in recent months this has been lost."
A former lawyer, Quince is the MP for Colchester and held the post of Minister for Children and Families since September. "Reaching this decision has not been easy," he said in his official letter. "Stepping away from the job I love where we are working every day to improve the chances of vulnerable and disadvantaged children and young people up and down our country pains me greatly."
Walker announced his resignation from the role of Minister for School Standards this morning. Elected in 2010, the MP for Worcester has a background in financial communications and has held several government roles. He told the PM: "Recent events have made clear to me that our great party, for which I have campaigned all of my adult life, has become distracted from its core missions by a relentless focus on questions over leadership."
Fraserburgh-born Buchan has represented Kensington since 2019. Also a former investment banker, she has quit the post of PPS to Kwasi Kwarteng, telling the PM: "You have lost the confidence of my constituents and me. The current situation is untenable."
Formerly a PPS to Javid, Glen has been in his Salisbury seat since 2010 and was, until this morning, economic secretary to the Treasury and City Minister. He has served under three Chancellors, but said the "poor judgement" Johnson has shown has made it "impossible for me to square continued service with my conscience". "The country deserves better," he wrote in his letter of resignation.
Atkins resigned as a Home Office minister, with her statement declaring that "integrity, decency, respect and professionalism" should matter. The Louth and Horncastle MP has been in parliament since 2015.
Churchill resigned as a Defra minister as Johnson stood to answer the first question at PMQs. She cited that the future is uncertain and the country needs "a clear, self-less vision". The Bury St Edmunds MP was elected to parliament in 2015.
The former minsiter for housing was the second minsiter to resign during PMQs. He cited loyalty and unity to his party, but said "I fear I have let these override my judgement recently". The former deputy chief whip, who was succeeded by Chris Pincher, Andrew was elected to parliament in 2010.
The Treasury has lost a PPS as Selaine Saxby resigns following PMQs and Javid's statement on his own resignation. Also a councillor, Saxby – who was previously an MP's staffer – represents North Devon and said she has not "spoken out sooner" because she did not want to be a "distraction" in recent by-elections. "I remain loyal, as always, to the Conservative party and my constituents," she said.
The former governor of a sixth form college, Johnston became the MP for Wantage in December 2019 and has served as PPS to the Department for Education. "I cannot defend what has taken place these past few days – or indeed these past few months."
Nolonger PPS to the Treasury Minister, ex-special advisor Coutinho (MP for East Surrey) has also joined the ranks of the resignees. "The events of recent weeks and months are preventing" the Conservatives from focusing on "the twin challenges of war in Europe and global inflation", she said in a statement posted on Facebook.
An ex-journalist, Davies (Mid Sussex) has now entered the headlines as yet another Tory MP exiting the government. She was made a DWP minister in July 2019 and says the Conservatives now need "a fresh start" and she can see "no other way foreward than this".
Kemi Badenoch, Neil O'Brien, Julia Lopez, Lee Rowley and Alex Burghart:
These five entered their names on the same joint letter which said "it has become increasingly clear that the government cannot function given the issues that have come to light and the way in which they have been handled". Badenoch leaves the role of Equalities Minister, O'Brien was Minister for Levelling Up, the Union and Constitution, while Lopez was a minister at the Department for Digital, Culture, Media and Sport. Rowley served as Industry Minister and Burghart was a minister in the Department for Education.
Logan was another PPS and his resignation came around 3.30pm. "We must face and respect the reality staring us in the face," he said. Logan worked at the British Consulate-General Shanghai before election and represents Bolton North East.
The two-term Redditch MP has quit her ministerial role at the Home Office. She said she was leaving the job of Minister for Safeguarding with "great regret". "I have defended you to the hilt to my constituents and to the public," she told the PM. "You have been an incredible leader of our party through some very difficult times but you must now resign for the good of the country and our party."
A PPS in the Department for Levelling Up, Housing and Communities, the North Norfolk MP announced his departure in a Facebook post, saying: "The breakdown in trust from the last six months is abundantly clear. The latest situation to unfold regarding Chris Pincher only compounds those feelings, with many now recognising the situation is clearly unsustainable."
Another former special adviser, Williams represents Montgomeryshire and says he will no longer serve as a PPS to the Chancellor. He supported Johnson in the recent vote of confidence but says it has now become "impossible" to "draw a line under previous events and focus on rebuilding trust with the public".
Freer was first elected by the people of Finchley and Golders Green in 2010. He joined the Department for International Trade as a parliamentary under-secretary in September last year. "I feel we are moving away from the One Nation Conservative party I joined," he wrote in his resignation letter, "not least in creating an atmosphere of hostility for LGBT+ people and I regret I can no longer defend policies I fundamentally disagree with."
The Bolsover MP's resignation letter accuses Johnson of being "an apologist for someone who has committed sexual assault". Fletcher worked alongside Kwarteng as a PPS and entered parliament in 2019, having defeated long-serving Labour incumbent Dennis Skinner.
"This government has achieved so much," said the PPS, who'd worked in the Department for Education and MP for Hyndburn and Haslingden. "This self-inflicted crisis risks undoing all of that. It's time to draw a line." Britcliffe's statement was released at around 5pm.
The Scotland Office lost this PPS shortly after Britcliffe's resignation was announced. Edwards, who worked in cybersecurity policy before entering politics, is the MP for Rushcliffe and said: "I know my resignation will carry little weight in the grand scheme of things. But when I leave this job, either of my own will or that of my constituents, I need to be able to do so with my self-respect intact."
Like Freer, ex-PPS Gibson specifies LGBT+ policies in his resignation letter. Attending the recent London Pride, he said, was a "humiliating experience" that revealed the "immense damage" caused by the "failure to include trans people in the ban on conversion therapy".
Banff and Buchan's MP previously worked in engineering. He has now engineered his way out of his position of fisheries envoy and trade envoy for Angola and Zambia. "In light of recent events, I believe the Prime Minister's position is now untenable," he said tonight, adding, "Having indicated my concerns internally earlier this week, it is my intention to stand down from my position."